What’s the difference between teaching and brainwashing? Do churches “brainwash” kids? To find out, let’s define instruction and indoctrination. Instruction involves sharing observable (or observed) facts, explaining beliefs, and teaching how to reason about whether those beliefs are likely true. But indoctrination asks people to unquestioningly accept beliefs which aren’t necessarily facts. Often, education includes both instruction AND indoctrination, as educators present facts through one worldview lens.