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Up Next in Season 1

  • No True Scotsman Fallacy

    No True Scotsman arguments say that no real member of some group would do something; for instance, no true scientist would reject evolution. These arguments become fallacies when they redefine a key term—like what it means to be a scientist—to avoid counterarguments. Here are some examples of how...

  • Vestigial Structures

    Vestigial organs are structures in living things which supposedly had a function in their evolutionary ancestor, but now have ‘no function’—or at least, different or reduced functions. Whether the appendix, the tailbone or wisdom teeth, ‘vestigial’ structures are often considered evidence for evo...

  • Drawing Categorical Arguments

    Did you know you can spot certain fallacies by drawing pictures? Overlapping circles, called Venn Diagrams, illustrate statements about categories (like “All cats are mammals” or “Some cats are tigers), which form the basis of categorical arguments. Here’s how to spot flawed categorical arguments...